Saturday, December 22, 2012

Largely Misunderstood

Days ago, the Nelson House Annex on Market Street in the city of Poughkeepsie was demolished. It opened in 1876; about twenty years after the Gregory House opened on South Cherry Street in the city of Poughkeepsie. The Gregory House, formerly the Eastern House, was operated by Theodorus Gregory, a prohibition advocate. As a temperance house, the Gregory House became the best hotel in the city, "far surpassing the Forbus House and Poughkeepsie Hotel."1 After the Civil War, it was sold to George Morgan (who Morgan Lake was constructed by and named after) who appropriately renamed the hotel the Morgan House.2 In addition to running the Morgan House, George Morgan also converted the College Hill School into the College Hill Hotel after acquiring the building and its grounds from Charles Bartletts' estate auction.        

Knowing that the Nelson House emerged on the scene about ten years after George Morgan began operating two popular hotels in the city of Poughkeepsie, I began to further investigate the story of the Nelson House. I came across the video below on the Poughkeepsie Journal website.

I'd like to highlight the following quote made by City of Poughkeepsie Historian George Lukacs in the above video:

“As far as the Nelson house being a loss to the community, it has been largely misunderstood and it’s more or less faded into the background. People walk by it, the man on the street doesn't possibly understand it, but that doesn’t make it less significant as a location." - George Lukacs

The above statement rings true with Morgan Lake as well. The man on the street walking (or driving) to Stewart's or Dutchess Community College may not understand why Morgan Lake is historically significant, but that doesn't make it less significant.

The goal of my research and community development project at Morgan Lake is to prove that while Morgan Lake has forever been a "largely misunderstood" place, it doesn't have to lose its' significance to the community as a result. There are so many community members who understand both its contemporary and historical significance, and once they band together, Morgan Lake will no longer fade into the background.    

1. The Eagle's History of Poughkeepsie: From the Earliest Settlements, 1683 to 1905 by Edmund Platt. 1905. 
2. The Eagle's History of Poughkeepsie: From the Earliest Settlements, 1683 to 1905 by Edmund Platt. 1905. 

Tuesday, October 30, 2012

Hurricane Diane Overflows Morgan Lake, Aug. 1955

Hurricane Sandy has nearly completed her tour through Dutchess County and has certainly left some areas worse for wear, but thankfully the upper part of Smith Street was spared from being flooded by Morgan Lake. This was not the case last year. Hurricane Irene caused Morgan Lake to rapidly overflow into Smith Street. Below is an iWitness Weather video uploaded on August 28, 2011 on The Weather Channel website of Morgan Lake waters rushing into Smith Street.

As many of you know, I am researching the short life of the Morgan Lake Amusement Park, which opened on August 13, 1955 and was owned and operated by the late Joseph Yellen and his son Don Yellen of Fishkill, NY. Recently, Richard Alexander, a Poughkeepsie native, contacted me through the Facebook group If you grew up in Poughkeepsie, NY and shared the following memory:

   Richard Alexander My feeble memory tells me this place was only open a few weeks when it was demolished by a hurricane and never re-opened

This was a great lead. On a day off from work, I went to Adriance Library and scanned through the August 1955 microfilm reel of the Poughkeepsie New Yorker until I came across a small advertisement that read, "...OPENING TOMORROW... Morgan Lake Amusement Park," which finally gave me the official opening date for the Amusement Park (August 13, 1955).

Weeks earlier, most of the paper's headlines discussed the drought that Dutchess County was suffering through. These notices shifted very quickly to warnings that Hurricane Connie may "pound" the area. On the very same day that the Amusement Park opened, the Poughkeepsie New Yorker reported that Connie did hit several trees and power lines in Dutchess County. Before much of the area could recover, a second hurricane (Diane) swept through the area causing destructive flooding in areas including Pleasant Valley and the upper part of Smith Street. On August 19, 1955, the cover page of the Poughkeepsie New Yorker included a short report and photograph of the William W. Smith apartments flooded by waters that overflowed from Morgan Lake. Twenty families needed to be evacuated from the building.1

Surprisingly another "Now Open" advertisement for the Morgan Lake Amusement Park was printed on August 20, 1955; the very next day after the flood. It must have been impossible for cars to drive up Creek Road from Smith Street and Salt Point Turnpike. And even if it was possible for cars to reach the Amusement Park driving south on Creek Road from Pendell Road and Violet Avenue, how many were actually out on the road?

Did Hurricane Diane force the Morgan Lake Amusement Park to close? Were there other factors at play? If you have any further information please write to

Saturday, August 25, 2012

Desirable Swimming Pool For Rent

Superintendent Dean of the Board of Public Works predicted in April of 1939 that by the end of that year the city of Poughkeepsie would acquire the Morgan Lake property from the Morgan family and add it to College Hill Park.1 The deadline predicted by Mr. Dean was a little ambitious, but the action of acquiring Morgan Lake was not; the goal was met in 1941.

On Thursday, July 25th 1940, it was announced in the section titled "Brief Bits of County News" in The Harlem Valley Times newspaper that the city of Poughkeepsie could purchase the Morgan Lake property for around $40,000 (about triple the amount that George Morgan paid for the property originally in 1866).2 In December of that year, a real estate transaction placed the 32 acre property into the hands of the Morgan Family trustees, Chester Husted and Elijah T. Russell.3 This transaction was carried out by the president of the company, Eva Morgan-Niver, Senator Morgan's daughter who became president of the company after her brother George Morgan III passed away in 1932.

Throughout the months of February and March in 1941, Elijah T. Russell paid for a small, daily advertisement to be printed in The Poughkeepsie Eagle-News announcing that Morgan Lake was available for rent as a lake swimming pool. 
From The Poughkeepsie Eagle News Friday February 21, 1941 Page 3.

On March 31, 1941 in an article titled "Morgan Lake May Be Swimming Pool" in The Poughkeepsie Eagle-News it was announced that a man was considering leasing the property and developing it into something comparable to Heidrick's pool in Millbrook, NY.4 The name of this man was revealed in another article published two days later on April 2, 1941 titled "Burke Seeks Morgan Lake: Would Modernize Property As Up-To-Date Resort If Zone Is Reclassified." William Burke had managed Heidrick's pool in Millbrook, NY for two years (1938-1939); which explains why he was hoping to develop Morgan Lake into a bathing park similar to Heidrick's pool.5 Burke planned to build "dressing rooms, stands, picnic tables and other features which [would] make the swimming pool more attractive" and would hire life guards to be on duty at all times.6

Just short of a week after Burke's plan was announced, city of Poughkeepsie Common Council members Alderman Williams and Alderman Thompson made the motion to refer Elijah T. Russell's request to have the Morgan Lake property be leased as commercial land to the city of Poughkeepsie Planning Commission.7 City Planning Commission Secretary George J. Lumb announced to the Common Council on April 21st, 1941 that the Morgan Lake zoning change request to switch from residential to commercial property was approved.8 However, the Planning Commission would still need to approve Burke's development plan before the lake became a private swimming pool.9

Did Morgan Lake ever become the Poughkeepsie/William Burke version of Paul Hiedrick's private bathing park in Millbrook? If you have any additional information about this moment in Morgan Lake's history, please leave a comment below, send an email to or call Joclyn Wallace (845) 418-0016.         

1."---Dean Looks (Continued from Page [11])" The Poughkeepsie Star-Enterprise Monday April 24, 1939. Page 19.
2. "Brief Bits Of County News" The Harlem Valley Times Thursday July 25, 1940. Page 2.
3. "Bond to Be Posted" Poughkeepsie New Yorker Friday Evening December 26, 1941. Page 9.
4.  "Morgan Lake May Be Swimming Pool" The Poughkeepsie Eagle-News Monday March 31, 1941 Page 11.
5.  "Morgan Lake May Be Swimming Pool" The Poughkeepsie Eagle-News Monday March 31, 1941 Page 11.
6. "Burke Seeks Morgan Lake" The Poughkeepsie Eagle-News Wednesday April 2, 1941 Page 2.
7. "Planning Commission Given Lake Request" The Poughkeepsie Eagle-News Tuesday April 8, 1941 Page 12. 
8. "Morgan Lake Zoning Change is Approved By Planning Group" The Poughkeepsie Eagle-News Tuesday April 22, 1941. Page 9.
9.  "Morgan Lake Zoning Change is Approved By Planning Group" The Poughkeepsie Eagle-News Tuesday April 22, 1941. Page 9.



Let's Go Fishing!

"Boop Boop dit-em dat-em what-tem chu!" This catchy chorus from the song Three Little Fishies by Saxie Dowell could be heard loud and clear at Morgan Lake on Saturday August 18th during Part 2 of a four month long outdoor, children's story book reading, song, and game hour series called Storytime by the Lake. The event is open to all ages and is a chance for children and families to learn a little about specific topic related to Morgan Lake; this month's topic was fishing. 

Four fish and fishing related books were read by Morgan Lake Volunteer Lake Stewards Joclyn Wallace, Dan Wallace, Betty Fugere, and Zachary Shaw. The story books read were:

One Fish, Two Fish, Red Fish, Blue Fish (fish pages), by Dr. Seuss

Piggy and Dad Go Fishing, by David Martin 

A Fishing Surprise, by Rae A. McDonald 

A Good Day's Fishing, by James Prosek

Fish and fishing related games were played between each story. Hot Potato (renamed Fling the Flounder by Morgan Lake Volunteer Brittany Bush) was played, as well as a life size version of the magnetic fishing board game Let's Go Fishin' designed by Morgan Lake Volunteer Amy Wallace. Children also had a chance to get their hands wet by playing with some wind up fish toys in a small, inflatable kiddie pool. The last event for the day was the Fishy Foto Contest where children (and parents) were encouraged to make their best "fish face" in the cutout board designed and painted by local artist Joanna Cohen.

Sunday, July 29, 2012

Saving Morgan Lake

A FULL page article on Joclyn Wallace's Morgan Lake Project was published in Hudson Valley News Vol. 4 Issue 15 July 11-17, 2012. The wonderfully written article by Daniella Di Martino is a must read!

Stop Those Litterbugs!

"Morgan Lake is where I like to fish,
And when I'm here I only have one wish,
That Morgan Lake will stay litter-free,
So that all the critters that call it home can live here happily.

If I do my part and bring my trash with me when I go,
Then everyone who visits Morgan Lake will know,
That this city park is cared for by all,
Young and old, big and small."

The Morgan Lake Anti-Littering Pledge was recited by all - young and old, big and small - yesterday at the first "Storytime by the Lake: Stop Those Litterbugs!" children's book reading at Morgan Lake. This free event is part of a series of four themed children's book readings that will occur once next month in August, September, and October, too. Although children's books are read, the event is open to all ages. Everyone who was at this month's reading enjoyed listening to the stories, singing "The Litterbug" Disney song, playing the toss and catch game called "Catch That Litter!", and hanging red Stop Those Litterbugs! hand cut-outs onto the outside wall of the restroom.

To view photographs of this event visit our Facebook page 

Next month's theme is fishing and the reading is titled "Let's Go Fishing!" Come down to the lake on Saturday August 18 at 11am to enjoy an hour of good old fashioned fun for free.

Friday, June 22, 2012

Storytime by the Lake: Stop Those Litterbugs!

If you follow the Morgan Lake Facebook page you may have seen the status updates about a new event idea I had to start an outdoor, children's story book reading event at Morgan Lake. Well, in few short weeks this idea was turned into set date on the calendar! I pitched the idea first to my mom, family, and friends. They thought it was a great idea and luckily Treasha Lord of the Department of Public Works, City Administrator Mike Long, and Erian Buckley, Administrative Assistant to Mayor Tkazyik, did too! Shortly after contacting Library Trustee Nathaniel Almedia, I was arranging to meet with Poughkeepsie Public Library District Assistant Director Lauren Muffs and Head of Youth Services Beth Zambito to further discuss the event. The prompt responses and support I received from everyone I contacted led me to feel very confident that this event will be a huge success. 

The "Storytime by the Lake" series will run from July through October. Each month's reading will focus on a different topic.

July - "Stop Those Litterbugs!" story books will be read about litterbugs and recycling. The litterbug song from this Donald Duck short will be sung and games related to recycling and throwing out trash will be played.

August - "Let's Go Fishing!" story books will be read about family fishing trips.

September - "The Lake is My Home" story books will be read about pond and lake ecology

October - "Fall is Here" story books will be read about animals and trees in the fall 

Flyer designed by Amy Fugere-Wallace, Joclyn Wallace, Don Fugere, and Betty Fugere

Sunday, June 3, 2012

A Party in the Park

Memorial Day has become a weekend long holiday of families gathering to remember those who lost their lives while serving in the United States Armed Forces by attending memorials, parades, and picnics. On Satuday May 26th, members of 5 families gathered to start Memorial Day Weekend off in a new way; by participating in the May "Scavenger Hunt for Litter" at Morgan Lake Park. The Wallace's, Shaw's, Bialosuknia's, Anjos's, and Fugere's all arrived in the parking lot at Morgan Lake around 11am. Everyone grabbed gloves, a trash bag, and a litter stick (all provided generously by the City of Poughkeepsie Department of Public Works) and worked together as a group picking up garabage and recyclables in the park. 6 bags were filled in about an hour and a half!

To determine what trash is most commonly left behind, I separated mainly the glass, plastic, aluminum, and styrofoam items from the rest of what we picked up. Due to poor scheduling on my part, my mom and brother weren't able to attend the cleanup (guitar lessons at Alto Music in Wappingers Falls come first!). But my mom is awesome so she came after lessons to count and bag the trash seen in the picture above. We collected 9 coffee cups (6 paper with plastic/wax lining, 3 Styrofoam), 19 plastic bottles (water, soda, and juice), 15 glass bottles (11 beer bottles, 4 coffee/juice), 24 aluminum cans (17 beer, 7 soda), 20 worm containers (18 plastic, 2 Styrofoam).

As soon as we got done tying up the last trash bag, a minivan pulled up filled with birthday party balloons and well dressed party hosts. My mom and I told the party hosts that there had been a park cleanup and they said, "Perfect timing! We're here to celebrate a birthday!" They were so thankful for our hardwork and it made me feel so happy to know that the areas by the picnic tables were clean, safe, and ready for a party in the park. Thinking about how great it would be to let community members, the city of Poughkeepsie Department of Recreation, and Mayor Tkazyik know that Morgan Lake Park is thought of as the perfect spot for a birthday party, my mom encouraged me to ask if I could take a photograph of the party tables being set up. The party hosts said, "Sure!" and invited me to come back when the party started. The prize that all of us won at the 2nd Monthly Scavenger Hunt for Litter was knowing that we achieved our goal of making Morgan Lake a clean, safe park environment for children and families to enjoy.

The Bakers, DeFrietas, Isaacs, and Harvey's celebrate a birthday

Saturday, May 19, 2012

25 years of Get Hooked on Fishing

Saturday and Sunday, May 5th and 6th, marked the 25th year for the annual learn-to-fish derby for kids under 16 titled "Get Hooked on Fishing." This hugely successful and popular event held at the City of Poughkeepsie's unique urban fishery on 17 Creek Road was planned and organized all twenty-five years by Ken and Cheryl Rose who live just up the road from Morgan Lake. This husband and wife (in the center of the picture below) make a great team. Their close friends and family members have provided them each year with support in a variety of ways. At this years event, I had a chance to see just how dedicated both the Roses and their friends and family are to making the fishing derby an enjoyable and memorable experience for families.
Ken Rose not only invited me to the 25th Annual Get Hooked on Fishing derby, but provided me with a table under the registration tent. It was truly an honor to be provided with an opportunity to be part of this event. When I arrived on Saturday morning I greeted Ken and quickly set up the table. I then forcibly entered a battle against the wind, which was determined to wipe all of my handouts and business cards off the table. After picking everything up, I set out on what became a 2 hour long tour around the lake. I stopped and talked to every family I passed on Saturday. I carried a clipboard and encouraged people to sign their name and email address, phone number, or mailing address onto a sheet of lined paper so that they could be notified of upcoming clean-up days at Morgan Lake. 95 people signed the clipboard sheet on Saturday. When I made my way back around the lake to the table Ken set up for me, my mouth was dry. I love to talk, but that was the first time I ever spoke to 95 people in a row in 2 hours!

So many of the people I spoke with expressed to me how important both Morgan Lake and this event is to them. One woman said that she and her family came up from Florida one year to visit relatives in the area and by luck they were here while the Get Hooked on Fishing derby was being held. They had such a great time that for years now they have come up from Florida to visit their relatives around the first weekend in May just so that they can attend the derby. This story really shows that this event is a family tradition. I also spoke with one of the volunteers, Matthew Miller, who has been involved with Get Hooked on Fishing for 18 years. Now 23, he was a participant in the event from the age of 5 to 15, and since the age of 16 he has been a volunteer at the event. He said that he loved the event as a child, and now loves to volunteer at the event because he knows that it means so much to the families that participate in it, as well as the people who organize it.  

When I returned to the lake on Sunday, I decided to move the table from the registration tent to the hot dog and snack tent set up near the permanent restroom. An announcement was made by Bill Conners through the speakers to inform people about my project and encourage them to head to the table. Although I didn't speak to as many people on Saturday as I did on Sunday, I found out that who I spoke to was equally important to the number. Among the people that stopped by the table were Michael Minter, a talented local magician, and his wife. They both gave me some great ideas for planning community events at Morgan Lake. I look forward to working with both of them in the future on event planning. I also spoke with Jennifer McGahan President of Office of Community Research who informed me that there are several grants that I could apply for so that events can continue at Morgan Lake. Hopefully I will get a chance to use my research and writing skills in the grant application process in the near future.

While this may have been the last year for Get Hooked on Fishing, Ken and Cheryl plan to maintain an active role in helping spread the word throughout the community that Morgan Lake is a great urban fishery. One way they hope to achieve this is by having fishing clinics at the lake. I believe that if everyone who was at the lake for the derby, as well as anyone else who visits Morgan Lake often is provided an opportunity to get together to brainstorm ways to keep Morgan Lake a lively place throughout the year, Get Hooked on Fishing won't have to be labeled as the most successful event that ended, but the most successful event that turned Morgan Lake into a annual weekend tradition of fun paving the way for it to become a year long tradition of fun through the planning of more community events.                 

Thursday, April 26, 2012

George Morgan III and the Morgan Lake Ice Co

Old Gravestones of Dutchess County New York, a publication copyrighted in 1924 by the Dutchess County Historical Society, provided me with information that led me to believe that our protagonist George Morgan only had three sons; all having had a very early end to their lives prior to the 1870s. Reading this, it became clear to me why George Morgan's sister Miss Julia A. Morgan took over the Ice Co. after his passing in 1879. However, when I later came across an article dated 1917 listing George Morgan as the head of the Ice Co.1, I realized I needed to conduct some more genealogy research.

Using to find any Poughkeepsie Daily Eagle articles mentioning members of the Morgan Family and the free version of the Family Tree Builder program available for download on, I was able to chart most of the Morgan Family history and find that George Morgan had eleven (if not more) children! He named two of his sons after him. The first passed away at the age of one in 1832 and lies in the family plot at the Pine Plains Cemetery.2 The second, George Morgan III, passed away a century later as a patient at Bowne Memorial Hospital in September 1932.3 This was the George Morgan mentioned in the 1917 article I read. He inherited his father's company from his Aunt Julia around 1910. 

While he was the manager, the Ice Co. entered a rather unfriendly suit against the New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad for $10,000 in damages in 1928.4 The suit, which I will write about in more detail in another post, ended in 1934 two years after he passed away. George Morgan found himself involved in another crime against his property earlier in 1917 when thieves stole potatoes from his potato patch in the middle of the night.5 In 1929, he had a new patch on his property; this one designated as the official dump for the city of Poughkeepsie.6 George Morgan agreed to this temporary change to his property, as well as a more permanent one. Morgan Lake was once off of Smith Street rather than Creek Road, until part of the Morgan property on Smith Street was sold to build a connection to Salt Point Turnpike (then Salt Point Road).7 Today we still drive on this connection that was paved sometime in 1931.

If you thought I was going to keep you guessing again on who took over the Ice Company after George Morgan's son, George Morgan III, I can understand why, but for once I'm just going to tell you now. His sister Eva Morgan-Niver* was the head of the Ice Company after he passed away. She played a role in the topic of the next blog post. What's the topic you ask? Sorry, but I have to keep you guessing somehow. You will have to wait to find out more next week!      

*Correction made on Saturday 8/25/12 - more research revealed that it was Eva Morgan-Niver, George Morgan III's sister, not his wife, Mrs. Effie Morgan, who became president of the Company after George Morgan III passed away in 1932.

1. "Ice Harvest in Full Swing Here," The Poughkeepsie Eagle News, Wednesday January 17, 1917. 
2. Poucher, J.W. Old Gravestones of Dutchess County New York, (NY: Dutchess County Historical Society, 1924) 194.
3. "George Morgan Dies After Short Illness" The Poughkeepsie Eagle-News, Wednesday August, 31, 1932. 
4. "Brief Bits of County News," The Harlem Valley Times, Thursday November 1, 1928.
5. "Morgan's Potatoes Stolen," The Poughkeepsie Eagle-News, Friday July 20, 1917.  
6. "Crispi to Request Dump Designation," The Poughkeepsie Eagle-News April 25, 1929.
7. "Purchase of Land Voted by Council: Two Contracts are Authorized to Acquire Realty for Development Projects," The Poughkeepsie Eagle-News 1931.

Sunday, April 22, 2012

Don't Rain on My Parade

"You know it's supposed to rain on Sunday?" Yes I knew, but I refused to let that stop me from carrying out the Earth Day cleanup I planned for today 4/22/2012. The rain didn't stop 15 other volunteers from coming to clean up litter at Morgan Lake either! Among those in attendance were some of my family members who are all very supportive of this revitalization project. My mom (Amy Fugere-Wallace), dad (Daniel Wallace), aunt (Michele Fugere), grandma (Betty Fugere), and brother (Josh Wallace) were all there in their rain gear; ponchos, full body rain suits, a golf umbrella and a vintage plastic rain hat. Our Lake Stewards from Marist College, Nicole Koenigsmann and Craig Corbeels, were also in attendance and they brought some friends from Marist along with them: Benjamin Bruckenthal, Erin Hoagland (Environmental Science and Policy major), Jenna DePue, and Rachelle Fakhouri. F.D. Roosevelt High School was also represented today by students junior Josh Wallace (my brother) and freshman Emily Shaw, a returning Lake Steward. My good friends Brittany Bush, an alumni of Binghamton University, and Nicole Braun, a celebrated vegan baker at Mother Earth's Storehouse, Inc., also came to help out. Our special guest of the day was Ken Rose. Ken and his wife Cheryl organize the "Get Hooked on Fishing" Weekend held each May at Morgan Lake. This year will be the 25th anniversary of what Ken and Cheryl proudly call "Kids Day."

Starting at 1pm we broke into groups of two and three and tackled areas around the north side of the lake. Nicole, Craig, and Benjamin found 33 glass bottles, a zip-up sweater, and a metal folding chair. Michele found a crows head and a shower head in the reeds. Nicole Braun and I found a black water line tube and a lot of plastic bags.

At 2pm, Emily Shaw blew the Vuvuzela, a gag gift from my boyfriend, to let everyone know it was time to return to the Check-In table to sort through the garbage. Using the Green It Movement Activity Report, we recorded the number of plastic bottles, glass bottles, aluminum cans, clothing items, food wrappers, metal items, plastic items, paper items, fishing-related items, and Styrofoam pieces we picked up. Total numbers for the day included:  24 plastic bottles, 51 glass bottles, 25 aluminum cans, 6 clothing items, 41 food wrappers, 6 metal items, 53 plastic items, 16 paper items, 14 fishing-related items, 44 Styrofoam pieces.

Saturday, April 21, 2012

Mobilize the Earth for Earth Day 2012

"The first Earth Day, on April 22, 1970, activated 20 million Americans from all walks of life to speak out
against the deterioration of the environment and demand change.  As a result, the Environmental
Protection Agency was created, the Clean Air, Clean Water, and Endangered Species Acts were passed,
and the modern environmental movement was born.  Today, more than 1 billion people in 192 countries participate in Earth Day activities each year, making it the largest civic observance in the world.  This year, in the face of global inaction on pressing environmental problems, we must harness that power.
Earth Day Network is calling upon individuals, organizations, businesses and governments to Mobilize
the Earth™ and demand that environmental issues become a top priority."

"The volunteer Morgan Lake Park Lake Stewards are joining the mobilization." The Park's first BIG volunteer, organized cleanup through the City of Poughkeepsie Department of Public Works Adopt-A-Park Program will be held on Earth Day, Sunday April 22, 2012 1pm-3pm. The theme of this Earth Day event is a scavenger hunt for litter. A map of the lake marked with several "X's" for the scavenger hunt will be handed out to groups of at least 2 or more volunteers. The volunteer groups will select either 1 or 2 areas of the park to clean in search of the items listed on the map next to the "X's" i.e. empty fishing bait containers, plastic drink bottles, empty potato chip bags. Any piece of garbage found will be picked up using the provided litter pickers and placed into the provided trash bags. The scavenger hunt will begin at 1pm and will end at 2pm. At 2pm the volunteer groups will head back to the check in table near the parking lot and will then empty the contents of their trash bags. Piles will be made of recyclables (plastic and glass bottles) and garbage (food wrappers, etc.) The number of items in each pile will be counted and recorded. The volunteer group that found the most items listed on the scavenger hunt map will receive a small prize!  

"It’s time for our leaders put us on the path to environmental sustainability and jumpstart the new green
economy. Join us on Earth Day, April 22, 2012, as we Mobilize the Earth™ and demand action from the world leaders. With your help, we will marshal A Billion Acts of Green®, organize rallies around the globe,
gather petitions, register voters and build the support necessary to enact change."

"Watch this video:

"And go to to join the movement and help make a difference!"

**The paragraphs and sentences in "quotes" are taken from the Earth Day Network website resource page for social media samples.

Friday, April 20, 2012

A friendly suit against Miss Julia A. Morgan

After her younger brother's passing in 1879, Miss Julia A. Morgan became the sole owner of Morgan Lake and the Morgan Lake Ice Company at the age of 68. This came as a surprise to me. Although advocates of women's suffrage began gaining visibility a decade prior to 1879, it was still uncommon for women to be business owners and managers. As a result, I was curious to find out if anyone questioned her ability to lead the Ice Company.

An article published in the Daily Eagle on August 5, 1885 provided me with some insight on how Miss Morgan and her business were viewed by some members of the public in Poughkeepsie. A "friendly suit against Miss Julia A. Morgan"1 was held, City vs. Morgan Lake Ice Co., charging the Ice Company with "violation of the city ordinance regarding peddling in the streets of the city without a license."2 According to the article, Miss Morgan's counsel Captain William H. Woodin informed the jury that she had a regular office in the city where business was transacted and agents who delivered ice to homes and businesses.3 Woodin also argued that "hawkers" and "peddlers" blow horns, ring bells, or cry out and Miss Morgan's agents [did] not cry out.4 The jury's verdict was for the defendant; a ruling that hopefully encouraged Poughkeepsie residents to view Miss Morgan in a different light.

As the sole owner of the Morgan Lake property and the Ice Company, Miss Morgan was permitted to do with both as she saw fit. In 1888, she sold the 15 acres next to the lake (what is today the open lawn, picnic table and bench area, and parking lot) to the Poughkeepsie Bridge Railroad Company for a Maybrook Line railroad trestle to be constructed over Morgan Lake.5 Below is a picture of what remains of the trestle today.
That same year she also leased the Lake to Stephen A. Perkins and his brother Jacob A. Perkins who became the proprietors of the Morgan Lake Ice Co.6 The advertisement below was printed in the Daily Eagle in 1893. It reads: "ICE from MORGAN LAKE, is from Pure Spring Water and contains no Sewage or other Impurities. All orders left at the Office or with the drivers will receive prompt attention"

Miss Morgan lived a long and healthy life and passed around the age of 99. Who inherited the Lake and the Ice Company from her you ask? Stay tuned once again to find out!

1. "A Test Case: City vs. Morgan Lake Ice Co.: The Question of Peddlers' Licenses - A Just Trial...The Verdict Against the City" Daily Eagle, Friday August 5, 1885.
2. "A Test Case: City vs. Morgan Lake Ice Co.: The Question of Peddlers' Licenses - A Just Trial...The Verdict Against the City" Daily Eagle, Friday August 5, 1885.
3. "A Test Case: City vs. Morgan Lake Ice Co.: The Question of Peddlers' Licenses - A Just Trial...The Verdict Against the City" Daily Eagle, Friday August 5, 1885.
4. "A Test Case: City vs. Morgan Lake Ice Co.: The Question of Peddlers' Licenses - A Just Trial...The Verdict Against the City" Daily Eagle, Friday August 5, 1885.
5. *in need of relocating the article.
6. Commemorative Biographical Record of the Counties of Dutchess and Putnam, New York. (Chicago: J.H. Beers & Co. 1897) 330.  

Tuesday, April 10, 2012

$15 per ton, and $1 per hundred

If you've seen the "budget friendly" signs hanging up at Morgan Lake (one on the chain link fence near the bathroom, one by the lake front, and the other attached to the fishing pier sign with wooden clothes pins) you may have already figured out how George Morgan made a profit off of his lake's water: by selling it as ICE. The Morgan Lake Ice Company provided householders and businesses alike with, as the advertisement below states, a "SUPERIOR QUALITY OF ICE."

Customers were encouraged to procure tickets from the Company's office at 363 Main St., which could be redeemed for the occasional supply of ice.1 Although ice was in demand each season, the crop of ice varied each winter and so did the number of men willing to harvest it. A county wide "Strike on Ice" began in January 1875. Icemen employed by the Morgan Lake Ice Company and the Poughkeepsie Company were paid $1.50 per day and they wanted more. The counter argument to the strikers was that at Highland Lake across from Fort Montgomery, men were harvesting ice for $1.25 per day so $1.50 should be viewed as a fair wage. The Icemen disagreed and some eagerly awaited the opportunity to start a riot to get serious results.2 In just three months, the Daily Eagle was back to printing ice notices encouraging families once again to buy "Superior Clear Water Ice, taken from the celebrated Morgan Lake."3 With business soaring, George Morgan built an addition to his ice houses in 1877.4  

From its opening circa 1870 to 1879, George Morgan acted as the agent for the company, while Albert O. Cheney and brothers were the proprietors.
When George Morgan passed on September 21, 1879, the Morgan Lake Ice Company entered a new era when Morgan's sister, Julia A. Morgan took over the business. Once again, please stay tuned to find out more in the next post about the Ice Co.!

1. Daily Eagle, June 3, 1874. 
2. "The Strike on Ice: It is not yet ended. More trouble expected today" Daily Log Book, Monday, January (13), 1875.
3. Our Own City, Saturday, April 17, 1875. 
4. Our Own City, Tuesday, October 1(0), 1877. 

Sunday, April 8, 2012

Oh, how sickly

"Poughkeepsie, which was claimed to be the Central Park of the Hudson, now turns out to be a city of pest holes and malarial diseases." - The Eagle's Work October 10, 1870

Had a few of the above Bobble Bottles entered the market in the mid 1800s, Poughkeepsie residents would have probably dueled in order to get their hands on one. Poughkeepsie's drinking water, supplied largely from backyard wells and cisterns, was severely contaminated in 1854. At this time, Poughkeepsie became a city and its population approached the 20,000 mark.1 The wells and cisterns were in close proximity to the "family privy" (or outhouse). According to an article in the Poughkeepsie Journal by Elizabeth I. Carter, "The result was inevitable. Epidemics of cholera, typhoid fever, smallpox and diphtheria claimed hundreds of victims."2 Newspapers reported as far west as Chicago that Poughkeepsie was "The Sickly City" and one reported that it was "A fine place to live, with fine schools and churches and railroad accommodations, well governed but oh, how sickly."A return to good health could be achieved if Poughkeepsie residents secured  an alternative, long-term supply of sewage free drinking water. "The Sickly City" needed an answer to its "water question," as it was referred to in articles printed by the Poughkeepsie Daily Eagle, and our protagonist had one.

Entrepreneur George Morgan purchased the College Hill property at an auction to settle the estate of Charles Bartlett, lead instructor of the Intercollegiate College on College Hill, conducted by Henry W. Shaw in 1865.4 He also bought the Swift Farm, on which he excavated the ground and dammed its natural springs in order to construct Morgan Lake.5 Morgan submitted a proposition to the Mayor and Common Council of the city of Poughkeepsie on February 21, 1866 agreeing to furnish a sufficient supply of water to dwellings and other buildings for thirty years.6 This offer was turned down after the Water Board and engineers Theodore W. Davis and James P. Kirkwood selected first the Fallkill Creek and then, after more careful consideration, the Hudson River as the main supply of drinking water.7 A reservoir was constructed on top of College Hill (the property that Morgan owned) in 1872 to pump the water from the Hudson and engineers Davis and Kirkwood built the first sand-filtration filters in the United States right here in Poughkeepsie.8

Although Morgan did not sell his lake's water to the city for the supply of drinking water, he still made a profit off of the water. Stay tuned for the next blog post to find out how!      

1. Poucher, J. Wilsom, M.D., "Poughkeepsie's Water Supply," Dutchess County Historical Society Year Book 1942,  66.
2. Carter, Elizabeth I. "'Sickly City' made waterworks history," Poughkeepsie Journal, Friday, October 7, 1983.
3. Carter, Elizabeth I. "'Sickly City' made waterworks history," Poughkeepsie Journal, Friday, October 7, 1983.
4. Platt, Edmund. The Eagle's History of Poughkeepsie: From the Earliest Settlements 1683 to 1905. (Poughkeepsie: Platt & Platt 1905) 204. 
5. Commemorative Biographical Record of the Counties of Dutchess and Putnam, New York. (Chicago: J.H. Beers & Co. 1897) 133. **I am still in the process of researching the Swift Farm. 17 Creek Road may have originally been the address for it.
6. Biever, Duane A. Old Poughkeepsie New York 1865. (North Country Books Inc., 1997) 170-171.
7. Poucher, J. Wilsom, M.D., "Poughkeepsie's Water Supply," Dutchess County Historical Society Year Book 1942,  66-67.
8. Poucher, J. Wilsom, M.D., "Poughkeepsie's Water Supply," Dutchess County Historical Society Year Book 1942,  67-68.

Saturday, March 24, 2012

"This is supposed to be a beautiful county"

Today, I met with our newest volunteer Lake Stewards, Marist College students Nicole Koenigsmann and Craig Corbeels, for the first scheduled cleanup at Morgan Lake Park. Wearing blue nitrile gloves on our hands, we each carried 30 gallon black trash bags around the park. We started in the partially fenced in area across from the permanent restroom building in the Rail Trail parking lot. There I found over 15 cigarette butts on the ground surrounding one of the park benches. In the clearing down below from the partially fenced in area, we found several empty plastic and glass bottles. The entire time we were in the clearing, the Mute swans were carefully watching us since their nest is nearby. A couple walking their dog said "Hello" to all of us when they passed through the clearing to stop and look out at the lake.

Next we decided to head to the other side of the lake where the pier is by following along its edge. In the reeds Nicole found a Skip-It, which had to have been there for a very long time since the last time I saw a Skip-It was in the early 2000s. Craig later found a traffic cone sticking out of the lake that had lost its familiar orange color; a sign that it, too, had been in the lake for a long time. 

An older man was fishing near the unpaved parking area for Morgan Lake off of Creek Rd. Shortly after he left, a man that was walking up the hill from Little George Street waved to us and asked if we were getting ready for the fishing derby (the annual Get Hooked on Fishing Event organized by Ken and Cheryl Rose). He then asked us if we knew of any organizations in the area that were looking for helping hands to clean up litter and we told him, "Yes! Our organization is looking for help!" Regrettably, I did not have one of the business cards I made in my pocket, but I told him I would leave a few at the Colonial Manor Apartments Leasing Office since he said he lived in that neighborhood. The man told us that he used to live in Putnam County and had worked for a roadside cleanup crew and that he enjoyed the job because it made him feel good to have helped clean the town he called home. He also said that he knew his work was valued by others in the community. Before walking back home, he said, "This is supposed to be a beautiful county." I replied, "You're right it is and if we all work hard to clean up, it will be."


Tuesday, March 20, 2012

It's official - Morgan Lake has been adopted!

On Wednesday, March 14th I met with Mayor John Tkazyik, former 5th Ward Councilwoman Yvonne Flowers, and City Administrator Michael Long at City Hall to discuss my efforts to improve the existing conditions at Morgan Lake Park. At the start of the meeting, I distributed copies of the short report I prepared,  which included a timeline of my research on the history of the lake, as well as my proposal to create volunteer opportunities at the park for community members and local students to practice environmental stewardship. Mike Cerasaro, a good friend studying Natural Resources Management and Policy at Paul Smith's College, suggested the title "Lake Steward" for the proposed volunteer position during a phone conversation we had prior to the meeting. The Mayor, City Administrator, and former Councilwoman were extremely receptive to my proposals and encouraged me to continue my research on Morgan Lake. I left City Hall that day with my head held high and with a copy of a 1896 map of College Hill that depicts the ice house at Morgan Lake given to me by the City Administrator.

Now that I have entered a partnership with the City of Poughkeepsie through the Adopt-A-Parks Program, I am now officially a Morgan Lake Park Lake Steward. By adopting the lake, I have agreed to take responsibility for keeping Morgan Lake Park clean. The Adopt-A-Park Program is sponsored by the Department of Public Works. The DPW will provide me, and any other volunteer Lake Stewards, with trash bags, gloves, reflective vests, hard hats, and anything else needed to properly and safely clean the park. So look forward to seeing Lake Stewards wearing borrowed reflective vests and hard hats picking up trash around the perimeter of Morgan Lake soon! 

Friday, March 16, 2012

Board of Public Works 1946 Map of Poughkeepsie

This Board of Public Works 1946 map of the City of Poughkeepsie, NY and Suburbs shows where the property line ends for College Hill Park around Morgan Lake. New Haven's Maybrook Line, the white and black line on the map, once passed through Morgan Lake. Today, the railroad trestle still lies over the northernmost part of Morgan Lake. However, the connection between what we know as Morgan Lake and body of water on the other side of the trestle that extends to Pendell Rd has dramatically receded.


Friday, March 9, 2012

Parks & Recreation

Around 4pm on Wednesday March 7 the sun was still shining and it was warm enough to leave the winter coat at home. My plan to clean up Morgan Lake with an old friend, and fellow Morgan Lake Friend/volunteer Lake Steward, Ashley Pastor, at 3:30pm was rescheduled to occur at 10am the next morning however, I still wanted to take advantage of the weather and get out to the lake. When I arrived there were about 7 cars in the parking lot. Two men were sitting at one of the picnic tables down by the lake shore. I passed by them and overheard one man say to the other, "The manifestations of God are visible" as he looked at his surroundings. Overhearing this spiritual comment at Morgan Lake Park gave me insight to what some of the park visitors contemplate while sitting at the picnic tables. Another man wearing sunglasses held a small plastic shopping bag full of cheese doodles that he attempted to feed to the Mute swans, Mallard ducks and Canada geese. As he tossed the snacks into the lake he shouted to the birds, "Come on! Eat!" The birds were disinterested, but I had fun watching them snub the bright orange, artificially flavored corn puffs. Later on, two boys arrived at the Morgan Lake Trailhead rest area from the Rail Trail on skateboard. Carrying their boards they walked across the lawn in front of the parking lot to the paved path and skated down to the lake. After looking at the water for a moment they picked up their boards again and started to walk through the small trails that exist along the lake; the starting point being the clearing where one picnic table is surrounded by trees on three sides. It was great to see people of all ages visiting the Park and creating their own recreation on Wednesday.            

Wednesday, March 7, 2012

"The cultivated must not be forgotten..."

Earlier today I received great news. I will be meeting with Mayor John Tkazyik and Yvonne Flowers next Wednesday March 14th to discuss the ongoing Morgan Lake project, which I have been putting the majority of my energy into these days. This will be another true milestone and will help to bring this project up to the next level of advancement and achievement.

In preparation for my meeting, I am compiling a sample park development plan. Nearby Peach Hill Park's development plan is available to download from the Town of Poughkeepsie Recreation website. Following its format I have adopted some of the topic headers from this plan, i.e., "Introduction," "Vision Statement," "Existing Conditions" and will give credit where due.

When thinking about the existing conditions of Morgan Lake, I thought of an excellent resource to consult: the anthology A Hudson Valley Reader: Writings from the 17th Century to the Present, edited and introduced by Bonnie Marranca. This was the main "textbook" for a course I took as a sophomore in college titled Literature of the Hudson River Valley with Dr. Beth Kolp at SUNY Dutchess Community College. Beginning on page 373 is the essay "American Scenery," by Hudson River School painter Thomas Cole. In his essay Cole describes the aesthetic qualities of the picturesque landscape, which the Mid-Hudson Valley in particular is nationally and internationally known for. Cole writes:

"In what has been said, I have in general alluded to the wild and uncultivated scenery; but the cultivated must not be forgotten, for it is still more important to man in his social capacity; it encompasses our homes, and though devoid of the stern sublimity of the wild, its quieter spirit steals tenderly into our bosoms, mingled with a thousand domestic affections and heart-touching associations human hands have wrought and human deeds hallowed all around. And it is here that taste, which is the perception if the beautiful and the knowledge of the principles on which nature works, can be applied and our dwelling places made fitting for refined and intellectual beings."
Morgan Lake is man-made; therefore it is certainly classified as cultivated scenery that offers picturesque landscape views. This unique feature should be honored and preserved.

Tuesday, March 6, 2012

Social Networking as a Lake

Around 6:30pm I made the official Twitter account for Morgan Lake Park (@MorganLakePark). After having been activated for less than 1 hour, Dutchess County Tourism tweeted about Morgan Lake encouraging all followers to become a Lake Steward to improve the historic lake. This was a milestone for the Morgan Lake project. A single tweet has informed several social media users that there is a slowly growing grassroots movement to create change at a local city park.

Of course in addition to creating accounts on social networking sites including, Twitter, Facebook, Flikr, and YouTube, I have also hung the "old fashioned" flyer calling all Dutchess County community members to send an email to if they remember the Morgan Lake Amusement Park that opened in 1955. The park was only open for roughly one year. This fact has lead many people to tilt their head to the side and say "there was really an amusement park there?" when I ask them if they ever heard about it. We'll see if the flyer generates any feedback! Copies are hanging at Stewart's Shops on Creek Road, Poughkeepsie, on various bulletin boards at Dutchess Community College, on the cork board at The Crafted Kup on Raymond Avenue, Poughkeepsie and in the window at: Darkside Records & Gallery on Main Street, Poughkeepsie, All Shook Up Cafe on Raymond Avenue, Poughkeepsie, and The Three Arts bookstore on Collegeview Avenue, Poughkeepsie. You can even find poorly cut green business cards that read, "Attention Anglers, Wildlife Photographers, and Rail Trail users: join the volunteer effort to improve Morgan Lake" at the Acropolis Diner on Main Street, Poughkeepsie. Thank you again to all of the business owners willing to support my public history project.           

Saturday, March 3, 2012

Morgan Lake Boaters, circa 1910s

This photograph of boaters on Morgan Lake, according to a note made on the back, was given as a gift to the Adriance Memorial Library by a Dr. Davis on October 22, 1951. Although the exact date that the photograph was taken is not recorded on the photograph itself, I was able to date the photograph circa 1910s. To determine this, I closely examined the clothing worn by the men and women in the larger row boat. The man in the center is wearing a stiff bowler hat and the man seated on the stern is wearing a flat straw boater. The three men that are visible in the larger boat are all wearing waistcoats (or vests). I then watched Poughkeepsie Moving Pictures, a VHS tape presented by the Dutchess County Historical Society of a segment of film recorded in 1913 that was found in a barn in Pawling, NY in the 1970s. The men in this film from 1913 are wearing the same hat styles as the ones worn in the above picture, which leads me to believe that the photograph was taken circa 1910s.

Examining the men's and women's fashions in this photograph also provided me with insight on which socio-economic classes used Morgan Lake for recreation. The two men in the small wooden row boat are wearing  jackets rather than waistcoats and collared white shirts. Their hats are "floppy;" neither stiff like the bowler nor flat like the straw boater. Also, they are fishing and rowing across the lake, while the well-dressed boaters appear to be drifting through the water at a relaxing pace. Based on their dress and activity, the men fishing may have belonged to the working class or lower middle class while the men, women and children in the larger row boat were likely to be members of the middle or upper middle class.

Visible in the background is the Morgan Lake Ice Company ice house. George Morgan began the ice business and was involved in it prior to his death on September 21, 1879. His sister, Julia A. Morgan was the immediate predecessor.

Monday, February 27, 2012

Please do not litter

On Friday February 17, 2012 I removed over 10 of these plastic Canadian Crawler tubs from along the south shore of Morgan Lake. The friendly reminder "Please do not litter" is printed directly on the lid under the cartoon image of the "crawler." These containers, as well as the other fishing related articles I found, should not be carelessly left behind.

To all loyal Morgan Lake anglers: please remember to dispose of your trash in the Park's provided blue cans. One is located on the south side of the lake in the unpaved parking area off Creek Road before Smith Street. Another is located next to the seasonal bathrooms in the paved Rail Trail parking lot.   

Tuesday, February 21, 2012

Digital Tour of Poughkeepsie/College Hill

Morgan Lake is mentioned at 1:25 "Downslope from the golf course is Morgan Lake, where there is a small city park and a dock for fishing."

"A Digital Tour of Poughkeepsie is an attempt to understand the City of Poughkeepsie as a small urban center that has an important human history and continues to evolve over time. Narrated by Harvey Flad (Vassar College Emeritus Professor of Geography), this DVD explores the landscape and history of 15 Poughkeepsie landmarks and neighborhoods." From:

Friday, February 17, 2012

Crosby, Frost and Griscom: Birding at Morgan Lake in 1922

Ornithologist Maunsell Schieffelin Crosby (1887-1931) "collected and published extensively on Dutchess County birds."[1] He spotted several birds including a Ruddy Duck and a Baird's Sandpiper at Morgan Lake.[2] His birding journals are part of the collection of the FDR Presidential Library in Hyde Park, NY.[3]

[1] Stan and Barbara A. Butler Deorsey. The Birds of Dutchess County New York Today and Yesterday : A Survey of Current Status with Historical Changes Since 1870. (Millbrook, NY: Grinnell and Lawton Publishing, 2006) 241.
[2] Deorsey. The Birds of Dutchess County New York. (Millbrook, NY: Grinnell and Lawton Publishing 2006) 66, 106.
[3] Deorsey. The Birds of Dutchess County New York. (Millbrook, NY: Grinnell and Lawton Publishing 2006) 272.

“Frost, Allen (1877-1946) was a birding companion of Crosby from about 1915. He suggested the May Census in 1919 and continued to lead it until his death. He was curator of the Vassar Brothers Institute. Most of his records and photographs are lost.”[1]

[1] Stan Deorsey and Barbara A. Butler. The Birds of Dutchess County New York Today and Yesterday : A Survey of Current Status with Historical Changes Since 1870.(Millbrook, NY: Grinnell and Lawton Publishing, 2006) 242.

Ornithologist Ludlow Griscom (1890-1959) was Assistant Curator of Orinthology at the American Museum of Natural History from 1921-1927.[1] In 1927 he became Research Curator of Harvard’s Museum of Comparative Zoology.[2] He compiled Crosby’s notes into the Birds of Dutchess County.[3]

[2]  Stan and Barbara A. Butler Deorsey. The Birds of Dutchess County New York Today and Yesterday : A Survey of Current Status with Historical Changes Since 1870. (Millbrook, NY: Grinnell and Lawton Publishing, 2006) 242.
[3] Deorsey. The Birds of Dutchess County New York. (Millbrook, NY: Grinnell and Lawton Publishing 2006) 242.

Thursday, February 16, 2012

George Morgan Constructs a Lake

George Morgan was born in Chatham, NY in Columbia County on July 16, 1816.[1] He moved to the City of Poughkeepsie, NY at the age of 48 in 1864, where he purchased the Gregory House, a hotel which he later renamed the Morgan House, and the College Hill property for $33,500.[2]

"He also bought the Swift farm. In looking over his farm he discovered several natural springs, and concluded by excavating the ground and damming it a lake could be formed, and to-day “Morgan Lake,” situated in the suburbs furnishes the city with pure spring water ice. It might appropriately by styled a sparkling monument to his memory."[3]
On February 21, 1866, George Morgan submitted a proposal on using his lake for the supply of water to Mayor George Innis and the Common Council.[4]

"In 1869 Mr. Morgan was chosen by the people as mayor of the city of Poughkeepsie, being the first Democrat ever called to that position; and at the general election in November of that year he was elected a member of the New York State Senate from the Eleventh District, including Dutchess County, defeating his Republican opponent, Jonathan Rider, by a majority of 187. The same district two years before had elected a Republican by over 700 majority."[5]
George Morgan also played a crucial role in securing Dutchess County as the location for the Hudson River Hospital for the Insane; known today as the Hudson River Psychiatric Center.[6] He passed away on September 21, 1879 at the age of 63. He is buried in the Pine Plains Cemetery along with his first wife and the son they had, and his second wife and the two sons they had.[7]  

[1] Commemorative Biographical Record of the Counties of Dutchess and Putnam, New York, Containing Biographical sketches of prominent and representative citizens, and many of the early settled families. (Chicago: J.H. Beers & Co. 1897) 132.
[2] Commemorative Biographical Record. (Chicago: J.H. Beers & Co. 1897) 132-133.
[3] Commemorative Biographical Record. (Chicago: J.H. Beers & Co. 1897) 132-133.
[4] Duane A. Biever, Old Poughkeepsie New York 1865. (North Country Books Inc. 1997) 170-171.
[5] Commemorative Biographical Record. (Chicago: J.H. Beers & Co. 1897) 133.
[6] Commemorative Biographical Record. (Chicago: J.H. Beers & Co. 1897) 133.
7 Commemorative Biographical Record. (Chicago: J.H. Beers & Co. 1897) 133.